It may imply a strong fundament to sustainable development strategy. It may imply a strong understanding of where and in what formats knowledge exists. It may imply the creating of knowledge packages business cases that span sustainable development functions and activities. It may ensuring that development programs initiatives are integrated, accepted and supported by knowledge producers and knowledge consumers. Knowledge packages for development may also include new knowledge creation, new knowledge infrastructures and new knowledge ideologies. It must solely focus on knowledge producing, sharing, storage, delivery and using.
A knowledge package for development must support non-technical and technical knowledge infrastructures. Each knowledge package for development may be: A public and target good. A non-rivalry good. A no monopole good. A transferable good. A flexible and adaptable good. A variable good. A specific good.
This public and target good may be: Easy to configure. Easy to integrate and to assimilate. Easy to assess. Easy to share. Easy to drive and to promote. Easy to maintain. Fit for sustainable development purpose.
The right knowledge package for development should provide the right strategies and processes to improve the agility, the aligning, and the performance of the target communities knowledge management and operations. It must comply with the appropriate technical or non-technical knowledge management potentials and resources. It must deliver and support the right knowledge management infrastructures, transfer and functions. It is very important to underline that knowledge package for development is more than traditional knowledge management.
The overall objective of knowledge package for development is to create value, to leverage, to improve and to refine the local communities’ knowledge competences and its knowledge assets to meet sustainable development goals. The implementing of knowledge package for development required some dimensions. This engages: The right processes, environments, culture, and systems. The right focus, strategy, implementation etc.
The flexible development culture. The right systems, tools, and technologies properly implemented. The support knowledge packages initiatives. Typically, failed knowledge management for development initiatives are often focused on business knowledge management, knowledge management tools and knowledge learning platform while neglecting the other sociocultural knowledge management aspects.
The definition of knowledge package for development
To repeat, a knowledge package for development is a “Dynamic knowledge package” composed of the "business knowledge" as the "Output" and the "knowledge for development" as the "Outcome". One important characteristic of a knowledge package format for development is to be fit for a sustainable development purpose.
This package must be updated on the regular basis through the right sociocultural infrastructures according to the local communities’ knowledge requirement and environment. A Knowledge package for development must support the strategies and the practices used within a community and outside the community to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of local knowledge sharing for sustainable development programs.
The composition of a knowledge package for development
Each knowledge package for development must be composed of a business knowledge management as the "Output" and the "knowledge for development" as the "Outcome". Knowledge package for development´s design has to make sense, connect with the target audience in a meaningful way, and works with business to support development programs. Each knowledge package for development may contain:
Knowledge package trigger
To produce or to adapt a specific knowledge package for development we need a knowledge trigger. This describes the first reasons and procedures we need to produce this new or to adapt this specific knowledge package. This trigger could be one of the Millennium Development Goals (Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, develop a global partnership for development). A knowledge package trigger has no standard trigger. Each knowledge package trigger depends on its needs and on its environment.
Knowledge package approach
The knowledge package approach describes not only how a knowledge package will be produced but the way in which it will be done. That is to say the guidelines, constraints (Infrastructures, money, time, delivery and support) techniques and non-techniques to be produced, exploited and supported should be understood and agreed by the knowledge consumers.
The main features of a knowledge package approach are to: Define agile knowledge management structures. Provide system of plans for knowledge resourcing and technical and non-technical issues. Set of knowledge packages control procedures. Focus on practical knowledge products (output, outcome), deliverables to the knowledge consumers.
Knowledge package input
Knowledge package inputs are factors of knowledge package content production (business case, investment, resources, encouraging people not to waste food, cooperative organization, development aids, technical assistances, capital, technical or non-technical materials, etc.) and the output is the final knowledge package content or knowledge package service produced using the factors of knowledge package of production through a knowledge package production processes.
Knowledge package output
Any of the knowledge package management’s specialist products. It could be whether tangible or intangible (knowledge development center, ICT infrastructures, rural radios, mobile, television, virtual knowledge platform, books, videos, etc.).
Knowledge package outcome
That is what local communities could do differently with the new knowledge package, for example, sending more children to school or educate their children more about HIV/AIDS prevention, etc. A knowledge package’s outcome is the result of the change derived from using the knowledge package’s outputs.
Knowledge package benefits
The knowledge package benefits are the measurable improvements resulting from the knowledge packages outcome that is perceived as an advantage by one or more knowledge consumers.
Example of input, output, outcome and benefits
Needs for new knowledge package format or adaptation of existing knowledge package format and its infrastructures to combat HIV/AIDS in a village.
Assessment to produce a new knowledge package format or to adapt an existing knowledge package format and its infrastructures
Decision to invest in a construction of a knowledge development center to support the local knowledge management and transfer procedures
Knowledge development center is constructed and managed by a local knowledge management committee with support of knowledge management agencies, local government, NGOs, public, private sector , regional knowledge management coordination Centre etc.
Information on HIV/AIDS infection and prevention are offered more quickly and accurately through videos, storytelling, seminar, theatre, singing, knowledge sharing etc. in the local language within the knowledge developments center
HIV/AIDS infections are reduced by 10%, annually
A successful knowledge package for development should have a vision that is accompanied by other new knowledge management strategic planning. This strategic planning should be a time and data-driven process that guides decision making, supports knowledge package scope, as well as knowledge program implementation components such as knowledge package goal statements, means and infrastructures to accomplish perfect the knowledge package´s goals, resources and timelines. A knowledge package for development includes a shared perception of reality, regarding how things are and how things should be. Furthermore, community and group culture determine the willingness and conditions for sharing with other a specific knowledge package.
Successful knowledge package for development encourages a strong leadership that promotes excellence and equity in knowledge management and transfer. This encourages projecting, promoting knowledge packages vision. This encourages garnering and allocating new knowledge resources, communicating progress and supporting knowledge infrastructures, programs, services and the activities implemented to achieve the knowledge package for development’s objectives.
The fine knowledge package for development should engage the entire learning community to take responsibility for the entire knowledge package for development. This includes carefully defined knowledge management terms and infrastructures that are known and supported by all parties. This package may be developed with representation from a wide variety of publics and private groups. This may promote and drive resource allocation in the learning.
This allows the societal, academic, and organizational components of knowledge management to operate in a simple manner and to articulate the learning community's commitment to both excellence and equity in the knowledge management and sharing organization. This embraces a dual and courageous mission of creating in each solid and rigorous knowledge management and sharing achievement and responsibility.
The first goal of knowledge development package is to meet and exceed the knowledge consumers’ expectations, to give knowledge value, and to provide knowledge access infrastructures to the consumers. It means the first step of the production of a knowledge package for development is to provide all parties during the knowledge package business case production process a clear understanding of what kind of the knowledge format and the sort of knowledge infrastructures the knowledge consumers want.
Recognition and appreciation
Knowledge consumers and producers recognize the performance of the knowledge package. The achievements are celebrated. The knowledge package integrates an integral part of the recognition, recommendation and appreciation. It is important for knowledge consumers and knowledge producers to establish common principles that apply the fair sharing and satisfaction to all levels.
Knowledge consumers become enthusiastic as knowledge package sharing results become known. They thrust themselves and take the engagements to produce and to share their own knowledge packages for their own sustainable development. The local communities receive comprehensive practical guidance for conducting evaluation and implementing local strategic knowledge package business approaches to improving the skills and competence of new and existing knowledge management discipline and infrastructures, also through collaboration and participation in different knowledge for development sector.
It is clear that effective and consistently reliable production and delivery in knowledge package for development can be achieved only when knowledge producers and knowledge consumers have the right knowledge business cases format with the right support. These conditions could be quickly established and sustained over time only through a decentralized knowledge management and transfer culture for development.
Relationships and communications
Knowledge consumers recognize the importance of the knowledge package within the knowledge sharing management processes. They can set new standards for the development and maintenance of knowledge management relationships. Knowledge producers encourage a climate of open communication, no monopole, non-rivalry climate, where knowledge consumers have sufficient trust in each other to express their opinions, thoughts and feelings without fear to lose any advantage. Knowledge package for development should encourage, support commitment to collaboration and participation to achieve its goals.
Successful knowledge package for development may have the following baseline characteristics. It may have knowledge package business case (To explain the continuous justification of the knowledge package content) based on:
Input (Resources). Output (Knowledge building center, ICT infrastructures, television, mobile, radios, development center). Outcome (Seminar, storytelling, education, information, seminar, etc.). Benefits (Reduction of HIV/AIDS mortalities, augmentation of the children schooling, etc.).
It may have benefits review strategies that allow to: Identify and describe knowledge package benefits. Describe how knowledge package benefits can be measured. Plan when knowledge package benefits can be assessed.
It may have a knowledge based planning technique that allows the: Description of the knowledge package business case. Breakdown structure of the knowledge package content. Description of the knowledge package content. Production of the Knowledge packages flow diagram.
It may have knowledge package quality review technique that allows to: Base line the knowledge package. Assess the knowledge package against it agreed knowledge package quality criteria. Involve knowledge consumers, providers, and producers and helps to promote the quality of the knowledge sharing program. Provide confirmation of the knowledge package quality.
It may have knowledge package change review technique that allows to: Prevent change to base lined knowledge package. Identify. Assess and control any changes to baseline knowledge package. Monitor knowledge package content achievements against those planed. Setup knowledge packages control. The knowledge package business case may be created through specific steps:
Develop (Develop the knowledge package business case). Verify (Verify the knowledge package business case). Delivery (Delivery the knowledge package business case). Confirm (Confirm the knowledge package business case benefits). Maintain and support (Maintain and Support the knowledge package business case).
The knowledge package business case may provide the following structures: Provide knowledge package structures (Provide guidelines to follow). Desirable knowledge package (Determine if the knowledge package is really needed). Viable knowledge package (Is it possible to be produced? Are we capable of delivering and supporting the knowledge package?). Achievable (Is it possible to deliver the benefits content of the package?). Worth the continued investment (If not, the knowledge package must be stopped).
The knowledge package business case may be based on progress control (Manage risks and change): Monitoring actual knowledge package business case against the knowledge package business plan. Reviewing knowledge package business plans with forecast. Detecting knowledge package business case problems and identify knowledge package risks. Initiating corrective action to update and to fix knowledge package business case (Knowledge package management will give advice). Identification of knowledge package business risk (Identify and describes risk). Assessment of the knowledge package business risk (Probability of the risk and impact on knowledge package business case). Control and manage the knowledge package business risk (better response to knowledge package risk).
Finding and producing the right knowledge package format
A knowledge package design describes the required resources and what needs to be done to produce specific knowledge package content. The knowledge package production´s plan explains how knowledge producers and consumers are going to do it. The knowledge package business case gives all the parties (Knowledge consumers and producers etc.) the reasons why they are producing the knowledge package. The knowledge package production processes explain how and why the knowledge package must be produced and maintained. The knowledge package formats vary from communities to communities and from needs to needs.
Example of Knowledge package Business Case: the construction of a new knowledge development center for local knowledge learning and sharing in a village
Local government recommends the development and implementation of knowledge-sharing Centre to allow village to get access and to learn new knowledge for development and to share this knowledge with local communities. The local government forecasts to recover the cost of the project progressive through sponsors, technical assistance, NGOs, local volunteer activities, hiring the knowledge Centre for international development congress, seminars, for local development actors, for local activities like videos productions, local dancing competition, festivals, cultural activities etc...
Reasons of the production of the knowledge
Lack of the right knowledge management for development and sharing infrastructures. To produce the local knowledge for development formats with its local infrastructures. To integrate and to support new acquired knowledge into the local knowledge´s context. To make it easier for the local communities to get access at the right time to the right information and knowledge to manage in a sustainable manner their local environment. To produce the right knowledge format and its infrastructures that supports the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). To support sustainable development efforts. To reduce the errors the local communities currently have with incorrect information and knowledge format. To acquire better knowledge management strategies with minimum efforts.
Reduction of sustainable knowledge lack into the communities as forecasted in the analysis and the evaluation document. Augmentation in knowledge learning and sharing as forecasted in the analysis and the evaluation document. Prevent loss of existing local knowledge resources and potentials as forecasted in the analysis and the evaluation document. Reduction in errors in the delivery of the right knowledge format as forecasted in the analysis and the evaluation document. Provide required information and knowledge to drive and promote the local knowledge and resources management with minimum effort.
Local communities could teach and share their own knowledge management concept without ever having to contact regional knowledge Centre coordination. This may have a negative effect as the local communities communicate less with their regional knowledge center coordination.
Project time: Long term as mentioned in the project description. Project Start: Starts with Requirements analysis and evaluation document. Project Finish: As mentioned in the analysis and the evaluation document. First Benefit Reviews will be respected as mentioned in the analysis and evaluation document.
Estimated costs mentioned in the analysis and the evaluation document. Estimated yearly maintenance and support as forecasted in the analysis and the evaluation document. Change budget as mentioned in the analysis and the evaluation document will be guaranteed.
Estimated costs for the project as expected in the analysis and the evaluation document will be available. Estimate cost to save the Centre management staff per year as expected in the analysis and the evaluation document will be guaranteed. Estimate to increase knowledge sharing and learning profit as expected in the analysis and the evaluation document will be guaranteed. Estimated Return on Investment on long term as forecasted in the analysis and the evaluation document will be guaranteed.
Knowledge provider may not be able to deliver knowledge requirements using their own knowledge format and infrastructures and may need to use more management services. Government may start using similar strategies which will affect the local knowledge development planned benefits. Local communities may not like to use an introduced knowledge format and may insist on sharing via local knowledge sharing infrastructures.
Collaboration and participation
Collaboration and participation enable to find, produce, deliver and maintain the right knowledge package for development format as soon as possible through the direct collaboration and direct participation of the all parties (knowledge producer, consumers, providers, sponsors, etc.).
During this process all parties are working together with consensus to find the right knowledge package and its infrastructures. The knowledge providers and the knowledge consumers must interact and exchange knowledge in the pursuit of finding, sharing a collective knowledge package. The collaboration and participation processes act as the foundation of producing and distributing quickly the right knowledge package for development format at the right time and at the right place. Knowledge consumers and knowledge producers interact, discuss, analyze, share and form relationships in order to find the right knowledge package format and infrastructures to better the lives and the developments of the target community.
This collaboration may exist in public institutions, private sector, communities, every workforce, office, and farm, school, NGOs, universities in order to find, to produce, to deliver and to maintain in a record time a specific knowledge package format. For example, a knowledge producer has its own knowledge package business case. They must work in cooperation with the target knowledge consumer to refine the knowledge package business case.
The most important aspect in this collaboration work is to detect what community issues, the knowledge consumers are facing, how they are local organized (in group, with NGOs, with central government, with local/regional development agencies etc. ) and how they are trying to solve those community issues with their local traditional knowledge management. The knowledge producer should capture the local existing knowledge resources and potentials that are available with reference to it specific knowledge package business case.
The knowledge producer must help build on the knowledge and skills already exist in the community to introduce progressive its knowledge package content in the local area that enable to produce and to provide the right knowledge package and its right knowledge infrastructure. This helps the community knowledge consumer to acquire skills, talents, and knowledge and to develop its own knowledge package for development that can be implemented progressive and which can be reviewed and updated on a regular basis according to the transformation of the local knowledge requirement and its infrastructures.
Knowledge packages for development could be changed updated in their capacities and available local resources and potentials. Collaboration and participation are extremely critical in the decision making; producing and coping strategies of respective knowledge packages and their quite common content that community knowledge consumer are fully understand, even by the producers themselves.
The collaboration and participation could enable rural people to realize their potentials knowledge package after they have acquired an intimate new knowledge, skills, talents, and understanding of these introduced knowledge packages for development strategies in their respective rural areas. Therefore, it is important to focus on continued interaction through participatory and collaborative approaches that both accumulates and disseminates knowledge package within a specific sector.
The collaborative working practices could bring practitioners of knowledge packages for development together inside an existing knowledge organization and network to enhance their futures knowledge package business cases and knowledge for development works. This involves identifying and selecting potential knowledge package collaborators throughout the sector, understanding the differences and developing connections between knowledge package for development values, styles, wants and offers. This involves creating a knowledge package framework between all knowledge producers, and sharing parties that outlines what each stakeholder is expected to contribute in terms of knowledge resources, knowledge infrastructures, what each knowledge party will gain in terms of reward, what risks each knowledge party is prepared to take on, and what responsibilities each knowledge party will have.
This involves designing, developing and delivering the mutual goals of the knowledge package for development. This phase is a critical time when knowledge parties need to hold the inherent tensions of interest, conflict and creativity. The collaborative working practices should ensure that knowledge packages and learning are shared and implemented as quickly as possible on the right and successful way. This involves reviewing the collaboration and the participation of all knowledge producers and knowledge consumers to understand together what worked well, what didn’t work so well, what new knowledge capabilities have been created, what new knowledge opportunities have arisen through the collaboration and the participation process.
The evaluation knowledge package aims to objectively and rationally detect the strengths and weaknesses of its existing knowledge package business case and to propose new investment, new opportunities and new threats, new knowledge package resources and infrastructures as presented by the knowledge package business case´s environment to carry through and ultimately the prospects for the knowledge package business case´s success.
In its simplest terms, the three criteria to judge feasibility are output, outcome and the sustainable development Benefits to be attained. The evaluation is based on an outline design of knowledge package requirements to determine whether the knowledge consumer has the technical, non-technical and the knowledge infrastructures expertise to handle completion of the knowledge package.
This requires a well description of the knowledge package business case to assess more possible factors which could affect the traditional knowledge resources and potentials. During the evaluation, the local knowledge infrastructures and resources, the possible knowledge management problems and the possible solutions to the community problems are evaluated.
For example, this table provides a log frame example to produce a knowledge package to reduce HIV/AIDS infection in a remote community.
Knowledge business case production
To reduce HIV/AIDS infections in a community
The reduction of the number of infected population
National statistics Data from public, development agencies health and ministry of health departments
To reduce HIV/AIDS infections by 10%, annually.
The number of infected population recorded per annum over 5 years period
Data from hospitals/clinics/ development agencies within the knowledge area
Data from date infection registration
No open opposition from religious or traditional knowledge in the registration process.
The community has access to knowledge packages services
People of reproductive age to use family planning methods effectively
Number of attendees at HIV/AIDS clinic prevention and treatment
Number of HIV/AIDS infections tests carried out
Number using contraceptives
Record number at HIV/AIDS clinic prevention and treatment
Number of requests for treatment
Records are available for baseline data
To collaborate, to participate and to train local communities
To fully equip a HIV/AIDS knowledge infections tests and prevention Centre
To increase the knowledge in supplying and in using of contraceptives
Collaboration and training of local people to be completed within 3 months
Local knowledge Centre, resources , infrastructures and all supplies quantified and costed
Numbers of local people trained and retained
Number of contraceptives issued at HIV/AIDS knowledge and prevention Centre
That trainers are available
Knowledge consumer and producer will be available at the start of the knowledge package production
Table adapted from log frame
The knowledge package business case is the driver of the knowledge package production during the knowledge package evaluation methodology and during the knowledge package review. The knowledge package business case is used to decide if the knowledge package content is a worthwhile investment
Before allowing any change to the knowledge package business case, knowledge consumers and the knowledge producers must consider the impact that this change will have on the knowledge business case. The knowledge package business case justifies the investment of time, money and resources into the knowledge package by outlining the benefits that the knowledge package content will bring to the knowledge producers and the target community´s knowledge management and transfer.
Participatory evaluation of the knowledge packages business case results
A knowledge package for development is a “Dynamic knowledge package” that may need to be assessed regular for the continuous improvement of the knowledge package Business case. The regular evaluation of the knowledge package must be focused on its impact, output, and outcome and on its activities. This allows all the parties to ensure, support and justify the continuous knowledge package business case. I would like to recommend in this paper a participatory evaluation because we are working with different communities. Participatory evaluation has its advantages and disadvantages.
This tabke provides a log frame example to evaluate the results (impact, the outcome, and the output) of a knowledge package for development.
Direct involvement of the local communities. Less expensive than hiring an external consultant
This process could take more time
Providing knowledge consumers more control and participation over decision making
It may require more coordination and it may be often more challenging to manage
Participants (knowledge consumers and knowledge producers) feel responsible for the results and are more committed to the success, improvement of the knowledge package
It may require resources in collaboration, participation evaluation training for knowledge consumers and the knowledge
Collaborative and participative process build and strengthen the knowledge consumers and the knowledge
It may require committed and motivated knowledge consumers and knowledge producers
Evaluation results are more likely to be acted on
Local participants turnover at inopportune time would be very disruptive
Increases participants’ knowledge of the knowledge sharing process, skills in leadership, group decision-making, evaluation and responsibility
Tableau adapted from Zukoski and Lulaquisen (2002)
"Participatory evaluation depends on sector to sector. It is a bottom-up approach to evaluation that is guided either partially or fully by interested program participants, staff, board members, and community members. Participants ask the questions, plan the evaluation design, gather and analyze data, and determine actions to take based on the results (Zukoski and Lulaquisen, 2002). Throughout the process, participants' perspectives are weighted equally to those of the evaluator (Kellogg, 1998)"[MEERA, URL].
The participatory evaluation of a knowledge package for development is a dynamic process that supports the continuous improvement of it knowledge package business case. The tableau below provides a log frame example to evaluate the results (impact, outcome, and output) of a knowledge package for development.
Knowledge Package description
Long-term effects and knowledge management’s contribution to overarching goals
How (with which units of measurement) is the impact measured, including the planned quantity, quality and time?
How is the information with regards to the knowledge package collected, when and by whom?
These are the actual values of the culture and the local knowledge. They refer to the (often tacit) views of the community itself (e.g. human nature, tradition). Again, these assumptions should need to correlate at least to a certain degree to the espoused knowledge leadership values for the cooperative organization to function smoothly.
Direct utility and effects of the knowledge package business case for target groups
How (with which units of measurement) is the outcome measured, including planned quantity, quality and time?
If the outcome is achieved, which assumptions must be fulfilled for the project to contribute to the impact?
Concrete products or services provided by the knowledge package
How (with which units of measurement) is the output measured, including planned quantity, quality and time?
If the outputs are achieved, which assumptions must be fulfilled for the knowledge package to contribute to the outcome?
Activities that must be undertaken for the knowledge package content to have the desired outcome
If the activities are carried out which assumptions must be fulfilled for the output to come about?
Tableau adapted from European Commission (2004)
The knowledge package must focus on addressing sustainable development needs and provides knowledge management exchange and transfer with access to the right sociocultural infrastructures (soft and physical infrastructures) that enable to reach and to support the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The ultimate aim of a knowledge package for development is to assist development organizations to provide knowledge management with easier access to academic and non-academic know how in the development and improvement of sustainable development products, processes and services; increasing sustainable development competitiveness and creating new jobs for the poor people around the world. Development communities must seek to match innovative knowledge for development ideas from Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with world leading development research and sociocultural infrastructures within private and public organizations, provide efficient funding options for collaborative knowledge for development projects and encourage the development of a strong cycle of interaction in knowledge management and transfer.
To produce the right knowledge package for development, effective leadership in knowledge package management for development is required. Collaboration and participation processes could help to develop and improve any knowledge package business case and its required infrastructures. This could enable to achieve quickly the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The nature of knowledge for development and its formats are changing. A knowledge package for development has to be improved from time to time to be replaced by new one. To face this challenge, new knowledge management perspectives are needed. Those may focus efforts on excellence and on delivery suitable knowledge package for development. Kknowledge package for development must be supported by development agencies, NGOs, public and private sector, knowledge management’s organization and knowledge research organizations.
The justification and business case for undertaking a new knowledge package for development initiatives could be difficult and complex. The primary reason for this difficulty could be the lack of understanding of the relationship between the local knowledge management resources, potentials that could affect the knowledge package business case processes and its outcomes. However, by following the knowledge package for development strategies and the characteristics of a knowledge package business case that I describe in this paper, it is possible to establish quickly a knowledge package for a specific development purpose. The local knowledge capacities and resources could then determine a value to the input of this knowledge package, and ultimately associating this with the output, outcome and the benefits expected.
Decentralize knowledge management process in development efforts is a challenge to achieve successful any knowledge package for development.
Author, Amouzou Bedi, sample paper, contact on linkedin. I will try to update this paper on a regular basis if a need arises. Please If you requires an explanation, or you have a suggestion and feedback with regards to this paper, please feel free to contact me. Thank you in advance for your collaboration.
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